Introduction Transport is the movement of substances within an organism. All living cells require oxygen and food for various metabolic processes. These substances must be transported to the cells. Metabolic processes in the cells produce excretory products which should be eliminated before they accumulate. The excretory products should be transported to sites of excretion.
Surgery to remove lymph nodes | Breast cancer | Cancer Research UK
As traumatic as it was for the patients involved, it has also been credited in part for triggering significant regulatory changes in the European Union—including the new EU MDR requirements. Here's a look back at what happened and how the regulatory landscape in Europe has changed as a result. In , plastic surgeon Henri Arion introduced breast implants to France. Jean-Claude Mas, a former butcher turned medical sales representative, and Henri Arion worked together in this field; following the death of Arion in a plane crash, Mas went on to launch Poly Implant Prothese PIP in It was the beginning of a company that would produce approximately two million sets of silicone breast implants over the course of a 20 year period and in its path, create a global health scare and shape medical device regulations. The silicone-based scandal came about when PIP implants made from a cheaper, industrial-grade silicone that was not approved for medical use were rupturing at a rate that was double the industry average. When compromised, the silicone gel was known to cause inflammation and possible scarring, and these implants continue to raise questions over the possibility of other harmful long-term affects.
Stage IIB The tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodesORthe tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes. Inflammatory breast cancer is considered at least stage IIIB. Spontaneous nipple discharge; may be bloody, clear or serous. Asymmetry of the breast may be noted as the woman changes positions; compare one breast with the other. Enlargement of auxiliary or supraclavicular lymph nodes may indicate metastasis.
Reduction mammoplasty also breast reduction and reduction mammaplasty is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts. In a breast reduction surgery for re-establishing a functional bust that is proportionate to the woman's body, the critical corrective consideration is the tissue viability of the nipple—areola complex NAC , to ensure the functional sensitivity and lactational capability of the breasts. The indications for breast reduction surgery are three-fold — physical, aesthetic , and psychological — the restoration of the bust, of the woman's self-image , and of her mental health. In corrective practice, the surgical techniques and praxis for reduction mammoplasty also are applied to mastopexy breast lift.